The Global Climate Action Summit is taking place. Leaders of states and regions, cities, businesses, investors and civil society are calling on national governments to join forces to strengthen climate action before 2020 – the year in which global greenhouse gases must fall sharply to avoid the worst effects of climate change. “A safer and safer, more prosperous and free world.” In December 2015, that was the world President Barack Obama envisioned when he announced that the United States, along with nearly 200 other countries, had committed to the Paris Climate Agreement, an ambitious global action plan to combat climate change. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism for a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  Paris Agreement, fully Paris Agreement Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, also known as the Paris Agreement on Climate Change or COP21, an international treaty named after the city of Paris, France, in which it was adopted in December 2015 and aimed to reduce gas emissions that contribute to global warming. The Paris Agreement aimed to improve and replace the Kyoto Protocol, an earlier international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It entered into force on 4 November 2016 and has been signed by 194 countries and ratified by 188 by November 2020. When the agreement received enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the goals. we will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.
It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.   Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have solidified their climate proposals with formal approval – including the US for now. The only major emitting countries that have not yet officially joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to do their part and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, greater flexibility is built into the Paris Agreement: it does not include language on the commitments that countries should make, countries can voluntarily set their emission targets (NDCs), and no penalties are imposed on countries if they fail to meet the proposed targets. .